Tooth loss is not only an aesthetic problem but it also entails reduction in the mastication (chewing) capacity and disturbed functions of the temporomandibular joints. Missing teeth can also lead to serious headaches.
Prosthodontic restorations can be divided into permanent ones, which are cemented in the oral cavity without being able to be removed, and removable ones, which can be taken out of the mouth. We distinguish:
Veneers are porcelain or composite restorations glued to the labial surface of teeth. They are primarily used to correct the shape of a tooth or change its colour.
Crown onlays (onlays), are restorations made by a technician, which are placed on a single tooth and replace traditional "fillings". They are usually made of porcelain or composite material.
Endocrowns are permanent cemented restorations in teeth after root canal treatment. It is an alternative to crowns and root-crown inlays. Preparation of a tooth for an endocrown saves tooth tissue to a large extent.
Reconstructions using endocrowns and outlays especially affect molars and premolars, which are involved in the process of chewing, which results in the occurrence of large forces acting on the tooth. If the tooth has few own tissues, the tooth wall can be stressed and broken off. Proper reconstruction of the tooth after root canal treatment guarantees the success of root canal treatment. According to the PTE (Polish Society of Endodontists) guidelines, each endodontically treated tooth should be reconstructed prosthetically, with the use of endocrowns or crowns.
Endocrowns as well as onlays can be made of both prosthetic and porcelain composites.
Composite materials used by the technician in the laboratory are more durable than those used in the dental office, hence the traditional "seal" has a lower durability and tightness. Properly cemented onlay, the endocrown retains its edge tightness for a longer time - adhesion. Technical composite shows greater stability over time, practically does not discolour, is hard but at the same time shows some flexibility. Moreover, the monomer phase is 100% polymerized in the technical laboratory under high pressure, which eliminates the problem of polymerization shrinkage.
Direct fillings, i.e. classic fillings, change their volume slightly during lamp curing, which can lead to tension between the fillings and the tooth wall. In the case of larger cavities, it can lead to a loss of the connection between the filling and the tooth. Making an endocrown or onlay involves more work and resources, but the final effect, precision, comfort and durability compensates for the costs incurred in time. This method makes it possible to achieve a very good tightness of the restoration, even in the case of complicated tooth structure deficiencies. Ready-made restorations are fixed in cavities with cements, which is possible thanks to the latest technology, with the application of adhesion forces, i.e. sticking the overlay to the tooth.
The crown insert or endocrown are done in 2 visits:
1st visit- a slight preparation of the tooth + a dental impression
2nd visit - " gluing" means cementing the restoration to the cavity
Onlays, endocrowns allow:
precise restoration of the chewing surface of the tooth
full inclusion of the tooth in the process of chewing food
perfect reproduction of tangent points
maintenance of proper hygiene
minimum intrusion into tooth tissues
Crowns and bridges – these restorations are permanently anchored on previously trimmed teeth. They are used in the case of significant and extensive damage to the natural crown of a tooth which cannot be repaired by means of filling materials. Moreover, they are often used to enhance dental aesthetics.
Dental posts and cores are restorations cemented in the root canal of an endodontically treated tooth, e.g. metal or fiberglass.
Skeletal dentures – used when the tooth gaps are too extensive to be filled with a bridge. They are made up of metallic framework equipped with clasps and pins. The clasps are responsible for holding the dentures in place while the pins are protrusions that lean against the surfaces of chewing teeth and transfer the masticatory (chewing) forces through the teeth and periodontium onto the jaw bone, which is beneficial for the body.